Lactate Biosensing for Reliable On-Body Sweat Analysis
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Diffusion limiting membranes
Wearable lactate sensors for sweat analysis are highly appealing for both the sports and healthcare fields. Electrochemical biosensing is the approach most widely used for lactate determination, and this technology generally demonstrates a linear range of response far below the expected lactate levels in sweat together with a high influence of pH and temperature. In this work, we present a novel analytical strategy based on the restriction of the lactate flux that reaches the enzyme lactate oxidase, which is immobilized in the biosensor core. This is accomplished by means of an outer plasticized polymeric layer containing the quaternary salt tetradodecylammonium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl) borate (traditionally known as ETH500). Also, this layer prevents the enzyme from being in direct contact with the sample, and hence, any influence with the pH and temperature is dramatically reduced. An expanded limit of detection in the millimolar range (from 1 to 50 mM) is demonstrated ...