Thin-Layer Potentiometry for Creatinine Detection in Undiluted Human Urine Using Ion-Exchange Membranes as Barriers for Charged Interferences
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Herein, thin-layer potentiometry combined with ion-exchange membranes as barriers for charged interferences is demonstrated for the analytical detection of creatinine (CRE) in undiluted human urine. Briefly, CRE diffuses through an anion-exchange membrane (AEM) from a sample contained in one fluidic compartment to a second reservoir, containing the enzyme CRE deiminase. There, CRE reacts with the enzyme, and the formation of ammonium is dynamically monitored by potentiometric ammonium-selective electrodes. This analytical concept is integrated into a lab-on-a-chip microfluidic cell that allows for a high sample throughput and the operation under stop-flow mode, which allows CRE to passively diffuse across the AEM. Conveniently, positively charged species (i.e., potassium, sodium, and ammonium, among others) are repelled by the AEM and never reach the ammonium-selective electrodes; thus, possible interference in the response can be avoided. As a result, the dynamic potential response of...